About HLA Gene Functions
How the Functioning of HLA Genes Can Cause RPL
HLA genes refer to a gene family found on the 6th chromosome that codes for the
production of molecules that have specific functions in the immune system.
They help to distinguish the body's own proteins from those of invaders
such as viruses and bacteria. They use what are called MHC molecules –
MHC stands for major histocompatibility complex – to assist in the
process in two ways. These molecules "pick up" proteins in the
blood stream or within cells and present them to other cells in the immune
system for identification and the decision to attack the cell or leave
it alone. Secondly, they act as markers on cell surfaces to assist the
immune system to identify the cell as "self" or foreign and
again, indicate whether or not it should be attacked.
There are many HLA genes, each with many variations, and each cell in the
body has MHC molecules on its surface. In cases of organ transplants,
there must be many matches in the HLA genes of the donor and recipient,
so that the immune system does not detect the new organ to be foreign
and so reject it. This is not, however, the case with an embryo. In fact
new literature has shown that there are "immune privileged"
sites in the body most notably the eye, testicles, and the uterus, and
here the immune system uses differences in "key" HLA genes to
start the process of immune tolerance. There are certain reasons why a
difference between the mother's HLA genes and those of the embryo
require a significant difference for a pregnancy to be successful. By
rejecting embryos with similar HLA genes, Mother Nature is attempting
to diversify HLA genes between individuals, for if they were all the same
a virus or bacteria could "crack" the code and wipe out large
portions of the human population. The reasons for rejection are discussed
under the section on
HLA matching, which also explains how this is one of the causes of miscarriages.
Helping You Prevent Miscarriage with Reproductive Immunology
Dr. Braverman and his team are dedicated to helping patients worldwide
achieve their goals with regard to expanding their families. We are the
only practice that has been authorized to use the name
Reproductive Immunology, as this requires proof of expertise in reproductive medicine and
immunology to the New York State Department of Education. We will endeavor to continue our
history of success with you and your family.
If you are having trouble with recurrent miscarriages it could be relating
to HLA genes;
contact Dr. Jeffery Braverman for comprehensive examination and treatment.
View our informational video about this topic by clicking on the video